Initial Enumeration of the Domain

Initial Enumeration of the Domain

Apr 24, 2022

Setting Up

For this first portion of the test, we are starting on an attack host placed inside the network for us. This is one common way that a client might select for us to perform an internal penetration test. A list of the types of setups a client may choose for testing includes:

  • A penetration testing distro (typically Linux) as a virtual machine in their internal infrastructure that calls back to a jump host we control over VPN, and we can SSH into.

  • A physical device plugged into an ethernet port that calls back to us over VPN, and we can SSH into.

  • A physical presence at their office with our laptop plugged into an ethernet port.

  • A Linux VM in either Azure or AWS with access to the internal network that we can SSH into using public key authentication and our public IP address whitelisted.

  • VPN access into their internal network (a bit limiting because we will not be able to perform certain attacks such as LLMNR/NBT-NS Poisoning).

  • From a corporate laptop connected to the client's VPN.

  • On a managed workstation (typically Windows), physically sitting in their office with limited or no internet access or ability to pull in tools. They may also elect this option but give you full internet access, local admin, and put endpoint protection into monitor mode so you can pull in tools at will.

  • On a VDI (virtual desktop) accessed using Citrix or the like, with one of the configurations described for the managed workstation typically accessible over VPN either remotely or from a corporate laptop.

Tasks

Our tasks to accomplish for this section are:

  • Enumerate the internal network, identifying hosts, critical services, and potential avenues for a foothold.

  • This can include active and passive measures to identify users, hosts, and vulnerabilities we may be able to take advantage of to further our access.

  • Document any findings we come across for later use. Extremely important!

Key Data Points

  • AD Users: We are trying to enumerate valid user accounts we can target for password spraying.

  • AD Joined Computers: Key Computers include Domain Controllers, file servers, SQL servers, web servers, Exchange mail servers, database servers, etc.

  • Key Services: Kerberos, NetBIOS, LDAP, DNS

  • Vulnerable Hosts and Services: Anything that can be a quick win. ( a.k.a an easy host to exploit and gain a foothold)

TTPs

We will start with passive identification of any hosts in the network, followed by active validation of the results to find out more about each host (what services are running, names, potential vulnerabilities, etc.).

Once we know what hosts exist, we can proceed with probing those hosts, looking for any interesting data we can glean from them. After we have accomplished these tasks, we should stop and regroup and look at what info we have. At this time, we'll hopefully have a set of credentials or a user account to target for a foothold onto a domain-joined host or have the ability to begin credentialed enumeration from our Linux attack host.

Let's look at a few tools and techniques to help us with this enumeration.

Identifying Hosts

First, let's take some time to listen to the network and see what's going on. We can use Wireshark and TCPDump to "put our ear to the wire" and see what hosts and types of network traffic we can capture. This is particularly helpful if the assessment approach is "black box." We notice some ARP requests and replies, MDNS, and other basic layer two packets (since we are on a switched network, we are limited to the current broadcast domain) some of which we can see below. This is a great start that gives us a few bits of information about the customer's network setup.

Wireshark Output:

  • ARP packets make us aware of the hosts: 172.16.5.5, 172.16.5.25 172.16.5.50, 172.16.5.100, and 172.16.5.125.

If we are on a host without a GUI (which is typical), we can use tcpdump, net-creds, and NetMiner, etc., to perform the same functions. We can also use tcpdump to save a capture to a .pcap file, transfer it to another host, and open it in Wireshark.

Tcpdump Output:

RohitKhandke@htb[/htb]$ sudo tcpdump -i ens224

There is no one right way to listen and capture network traffic. There are plenty of tools that can process network data. Wireshark and tcpdump are just a few of the easiest to use and most widely known. Depending on the host you are on, you may already have a network monitoring tool built-in, such as pktmon.exe, which was added to all editions of Windows 10. As a note for testing, it's always a good idea to save the PCAP traffic you capture. You can review it again later to look for more hints, and it makes for great additional information to include while writing your reports.

Our first look at network traffic pointed us to a couple of hosts via MDNS and ARP. Now let's utilize a tool called Responder to analyze network traffic and determine if anything else in the domain pops up.

Responder is a tool built to listen, analyze, and poison LLMNR, NBT-NS, and MDNS requests and responses. It has many more functions, but for now, all we are utilizing is the tool in its Analyze mode. This will passively listen to the network and not send any poisoned packets. We'll cover this tool more in-depth in later sections.

Starting Responder

RohitKhandke@htb[/htb]$ sudo responder -I ens224 -A

As we start Responder with passive analysis mode enabled, we will see requests flow in our session. Notice below that we found a few unique hosts not previously mentioned in our Wireshark captures. It's worth noting these down as we are starting to build a nice target list of IPs and DNS hostnames.

Our passive checks have given us a few hosts to note down for a more in-depth enumeration. Now let's perform some active checks starting with a quick ICMP sweep of the subnet using fping.

Fping provides us with a similar capability as the standard ping application in that it utilizes ICMP requests and replies to reach out and interact with a host. Where fping shines is in its ability to issue ICMP packets against a list of multiple hosts at once and its scriptability. Also, it works in a round-robin fashion, querying hosts in a cyclical manner instead of waiting for multiple requests to a single host to return before moving on. These checks will help us determine if anything else is active on the internal network. ICMP is not a one-stop-shop, but it is an easy way to get an initial idea of what exists. Other open ports and active protocols may point to new hosts for later targeting. Let's see it in action.

FPing Active Checks

Here we'll start fping with a few flags: a to show targets that are alive, s to print stats at the end of the scan, g to generate a target list from the CIDR network, and q to not show per-target results.

The command above validates which hosts are active in the /23 network and does it quietly instead of spamming the terminal with results for each IP in the target list. We can combine the successful results and the information we gleaned from our passive checks into a list for a more detailed scan with Nmap. From the fping command, we can see 9 "live hosts," including our attack host.

Nmap Scanning

Now that we have a list of active hosts within our network, we can enumerate those hosts further. We are looking to determine what services each host is running, identify critical hosts such as Domain Controllers and web servers, and identify potentially vulnerable hosts to probe later. With our focus on AD, after doing a broad sweep, it would be wise of us to focus on standard protocols typically seen accompanying AD services, such as DNS, SMB, LDAP, and Kerberos name a few. Below is a quick example of a simple Nmap scan.

sudo nmap -v -A -iL hosts.txt -oN /home/htb-student/Documents/host-enum


Our scans have provided us with the naming standard used by NetBIOS and DNS, we can see some hosts have RDP open, and they have pointed us in the direction of the primary Domain Controller for the INLANEFREIGHT.LOCAL domain (ACADEMY-EA-DC01.INLANEFREIGHT.LOCAL).

The results below show some interesting results surrounding a possibly outdated host

We can see from the output above that we have a potential host running an outdated operating system ( Windows 7, 8, or Server 2008 based on the output). This is of interest to us since it means there are legacy operating systems running in this AD environment. It also means there is potential for older exploits like EternalBlue, MS08-067, and others to work and provide us with a SYSTEM level shell. As weird as it sounds to have hosts running legacy software or end-of-life operating systems, it is still common in large enterprise environments. You will often have some process or equipment such as a production line or the HVAC built on the older OS and has been in place for a long time. Taking equipment like that offline is costly and can hurt an organization, so legacy hosts are often left in place. They will likely try to build a hard outer shell of Firewalls, IDS/IPS, and other monitoring and protection solutions around those systems. If you can find your way into one, it is a big deal and can be a quick and easy foothold. Before exploiting legacy systems, however, we should alert our client and get their approval in writing in case an attack results in system instability or brings a service or the host down. They may prefer that we just observe, report, and move on without actively exploiting the system.

The results of these scans will clue us into where we will start looking for potential domain enumeration avenues, not just host scanning. We need to find our way to a domain user account. Looking at our results, we found several servers that host domain services ( DC01, MX01, WS01, etc.). Now that we know what exists and what services are running, we can poll those servers and attempt to enumerate users. Be sure to use the -oA flag as a best practice when performing Nmap scans. This will ensure that we have our scan results in several formats for logging purposes and formats that can be manipulated and fed into other tools.

We need to be aware of what scans we run and how they work. Some of the Nmap scripted scans run active vulnerability checks against a host that could cause system instability or take it offline, causing issues for the customer or worse. For example, running a large discovery scan against a network with devices such as sensors or logic controllers could potentially overload them and disrupt the customer's industrial equipment causing a loss of product or capability. Take the time to understand the scans you use before running them in a customer's environment.

We will most likely return to these results later for further enumeration, so don't forget about them. We need to find our way to a domain user account or SYSTEM level access on a domain-joined host so we can gain a foothold and start the real fun. Let's dive into finding a user account.

Identifying Users

If our client does not provide us with a user to start testing with (which is often the case), we will need to find a way to establish a foothold in the domain by either obtaining clear text credentials or an NTLM password hash for a user, a SYSTEM shell on a domain-joined host, or a shell in the context of a domain user account. Obtaining a valid user with credentials is critical in the early stages of an internal penetration test. This access (even at the lowest level) opens up many opportunities to perform enumeration and even attacks. Let's look at one way we can start gathering a list of valid users in a domain to use later in our assessment.

Kerbrute - Internal AD Username Enumeration

Kerbrute can be a stealthier option for domain account enumeration. It takes advantage of the fact that Kerberos pre-authentication failures often will not trigger logs or alerts. We will use Kerbrute in conjunction with the jsmith.txt or jsmith2.txt user lists from Insidetrust. This repository contains many different user lists that can be extremely useful when attempting to enumerate users when starting from an unauthenticated perspective. We can point Kerbrute at the DC we found earlier and feed it a wordlist. The tool is quick, and we will be provided with results letting us know if the accounts found are valid or not, which is a great starting point for launching attacks such as password spraying, which we will cover in-depth later in this module.

To get started with Kerbrute, we can download precompiled binaries for the tool for testing from Linux, Windows, and Mac, or we can compile it ourselves. This is generally the best practice for any tool we introduce into a client environment. To compile the binaries to use on the system of our choosing, we first clone the repo:


kerbrute userenum -d INLANEFREIGHT.LOCAL --dc 172.16.5.5 jsmith.txt -o valid_ad_users

We can see from our output that we validated 56 users in the INLANEFREIGHT.LOCAL domain and it took only a few seconds to do so. Now we can take these results and build a list for use in targeted password spraying attacks.

Identifying Potential Vulnerabilities

The local system account NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM is a built-in account in Windows operating systems. It has the highest level of access in the OS and is used to run most Windows services. It is also very common for third-party services to run in the context of this account by default. A SYSTEM account on a domain-joined host will be able to enumerate Active Directory by impersonating the computer account, which is essentially just another kind of user account. Having SYSTEM-level access within a domain environment is nearly equivalent to having a domain user account.

There are several ways to gain SYSTEM-level access on a host, including but not limited to:

  • Remote Windows exploits such as MS08-067, EternalBlue, or BlueKeep.

  • Abusing a service running in the context of the SYSTEM account, or abusing the service account SeImpersonate privileges using Juicy Potato. This type of attack is possible on older Windows OS' but not always possible with Windows Server 2019.

  • Local privilege escalation flaws in Windows operating systems such as the Windows 10 Task Scheduler 0-day.

  • Gaining admin access on a domain-joined host with a local account and using Psexec to launch a SYSTEM cmd window.

By gaining SYSTEM-level access on a domain-joined host, you will be able to perform actions such as, but not limited to:

  • Enumerate the domain using built-in tools or offensive tools such as BloodHound and PowerView.

  • Perform Kerberoasting / ASREPRoasting attacks within the same domain.

  • Run tools such as Inveigh to gather Net-NTLMv2 hashes or perform SMB relay attacks.

  • Perform token impersonation to hijack a privileged domain user account.

  • Carry out ACL attacks.

A Word Of Caution

Keep the scope and style of the test in mind when choosing a tool for use. If you are performing a non-evasive penetration test, with everything out in the open and the customer's staff knowing you are there, it doesn't typically matter how much noise you make. However, during an evasive penetration test, adversarial assessment, or red team engagement, you are trying to mimic a potential attacker's Tools, Tactics, and Procedures. With that in mind, stealth is of concern. Throwing Nmap at an entire network is not exactly quiet, and many of the tools we commonly use on a penetration test will trigger alarms for an educated and prepared SOC or Blue Teamer. Always be sure to clarify the goal of your assessment with the client in writing before it begins.

Let's Find a User

In the following few sections, we will hunt for a domain user account using techniques such as LLMNR/NBT-NS Poisoning and password spraying. These attacks are great ways to gain a foothold but must be exercised with caution and an understanding of the tools and techniques. Now let's hunt down a user account so we can move on to the next phase of our assessment and start picking apart the domain piece by piece and digging deep for a multitude of misconfigurations and flaws.

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